It’s the most advanced tank Russia doesn’t need. With a thin combat record despite being mass-produced the T-80 and its derivatives now face an existential crisis.
On paper, the T-80 is an excellent third-generation MBT and the last produced by the Soviet Union before it collapsed. Incorporating features of the T-64 and equipped with better technology than the T-72, the T-80 uses the same weapons suite as its peers. These include a 125mm 2A46M main gun that can fire ATGMs and tandem machine guns, a turret mounted12.7mm NSV and coaxial 7.62mm PKT.
Further development with a better turret, Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour, improved gunsight, and 9K119 Refleks missile system. In 1990 a new, 1,250-hp, engine was installed. Overall protection with Kontakt-5 against APFSDS/HEAT is 780/1,320 mm RHAe.9K119M with antitank guided missile 9M119M installed since 1990. Some of the tanks in commander version (T-80UK) equipped with Shtora-1 APS, and thermal imaging night sight TO1-PO2T (detection range / target classification range = 6,400/4,600 meters at night). Basic thermal night sight of the T-80U is within the limits of 1,750/1,500 meters.
Unspecified numbers of the T-80U are in service with the Russian Army today. More are believed kept in storage. The T-80 enjoyed limited export success. Its largest foreign user is Pakistan, who acquired 320 Ukrainian T-80UD’s during the mid-1990s.
T-90AM is a variant of the deep modernization of the T-90S MBT. Protection, mobility, firepower is increased.
Some distinctive features of the basic version of the T-90S:
An additional compartment rear of the turret, in which there are some more rounds and some electronic components,New V-93 (1130 hp) engine,Automatic transmission with steering wheel and optional manual shift gear,New ERA Relikt,New automatic loader and improved gun with 2A82 (or 2A46M-5),UDP T05BV-1 remote controlled weapon station (RCWS) on the roof of the turret,
Bar armor covering the rear of the hull and turret,A new digital fire control system Panorama,For the T-90 has developed a new welded turret, new commander panoramic sight with thermal channel, the commander hatch is equipped with periscopes, providing all-round view.
The commander was equipped with a RCWS, armed with a Pecheneg 7.62 mm machine gun. It is installed over the panorama. Panoramic sight is the two-plane stabilized, it has thermal imaging and television channels, and the laser rangefinder. Through this sight commander can fire from main gun and RCWS T05BV UDP-1.
The tank has new communication and navigation system, which provides integration into battle management system.
7.Type-99(China): The Type 99 main battle tank is a further development of the Type 98 MBT. It is generally similar to the Type 98, but has a number of improvements. The Type 99 was revealed in 2000 and entered service with the Chinese Army in 2001. This main battle tank shows a mixture of Russian and Western influence in its design and technology. As of 2017 improved version of this tank is produced in China.
The Type 99 tank is armed with a fully-stabilized ZPT98 125 mm smoothbore gun, fitted with a carousel-type autoloader. Both the main gun and the autoloader were copied from the Soviet/Russian designs. The Type 99 has a rate of fire in 8 rpm using autoloader and 1 – 2 rpm loading manually. It fires APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG rounds. It is reported that this MBT also uses more capable APFSDS rounds with depleted uranium penetrators.
The Type 99 main battle tank is compatible with Russian 9M119M Refleks (Western designation AT-11 Sniper-B) gun-launched anti-tank guided missiles, fired in the same manner as ordinary projectiles. China produces this anti-tank missile system under license. This missile has a maximum effective range of 4 – 5 km and can target helicopters. A total of four missiles are carried.
Secondary armament consists of 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun and 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun.
Challenger 2 the battle tank used by the British Army and the Royal Army of Oman. It was manufactured by the British Vickers Defence Systems. This tank has been named as the world’s most reliable main battle tank. It has been used in combat Bosnia, Kosovo, and Iraq.
It has a 120mm L30 CHARM, C-axial 7.62mm chain gun and a turret mounted 7.62mm machine gun which serves as a secondary weapon. It has the maximum speed of 59km/h and provides high protection against direct fire weapons. It also has a light weight Perkins-Condor CV12 engine.
Japan is the first East Asian country to build its own tanks and armored vehicles.
A world class manufacturing base and its own experience with a variant of the German Leopard 2, the Type 90, led to a completely new tank in the 2000s. This is the Type 10. Only entering service in 2012, the 48-ton Type 10 is a three-man, 1,200 horsepower MBT encased in ceramic steel armor.
Armed with an autoloader-fed 120mm Rheinmetall gun, the Type 10’s conventional layout puts it in the same class as the M1A2 Abrams and the Leopard 2A7. It must be emphasized how the Type 10’s dimensions are smaller to suit the JGSDF’s new requirement for mobility and rapid transport.
Additional layers of protection on the turret, including side skirts covering the five road wheels on each set of treads, ensure the Type 10 can absorb IED and missile hits.
4.M1A2 SEP (USA)
The first M1 Abrams battle tanks were delivered to the US Army in 1980. In all 3,273 M1 tanks were produced for the US Army, 4,796 M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army, 221 for the US Marines and 880 co-produced with Egypt.
Approximately 77 M1A2 tanks were built for the US Army, 315 for Saudi Arabia and 218 for Kuwait.
For the M1A2 upgrade programme, more than 600 M1 Abrams tanks were upgraded to M1A2 configuration at the Lima Army tank plant between 1996 and 2001. Deliveries began in 1998.
The main armament is the 120mm M256 smoothbore gun, developed by Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH of Germany. The 120mm gun fires the following ammunition – M865 TPCSDS-T and M831 TP-T training rounds, the M8300 HEAT-MP-T and the M829 APFSDS-T which includes a depleted uranium penetrator. Textron Systems provides the Cadillac Gage gun turret drive stabilisation system.
The commander has a 12.7mm Browning M2 machine gun and the loader has a 7.62mm M240 machine gun. A 7.62mm M240 machine gun is also mounted coaxially on the right hand side of the main armament.
3.K2 Black Panther(South Korea)
The 55-ton K2 is the South Korean Army’s most powerful MBT to date. It’s also a test bed for multiple systems uncommon to most tanks until recently.
The K2, like the French Leclerc, uses an autoloader to feed its 120mm smoothbore L55 gun, which reduces the crew to just three. The K2’s large layout is a departure from South Korea’s older MBTs like the M48 and the T-80 and its distinct improvements puts it ahead of possible rivals.
Furthermore, full computerization influenced the K2’s development over several years. Not only is it Nuclear-Biological-Chemical (NBC) protected, but air-conditioned, C4I and GPS enabled, with digital battle management software and day-night thermal imagery for its laser rangefinder. It also has an active protection system (APS) to detect and foil incoming warheads.
In summation, it’s a superb platform whose performance characteristics can no doubt be improved over the years, making it even deadlier. A German 1,500 hp V12 engine and optional up-armoring with ERA guarantees the K2’s advantages over North Korea’s aging tanks. By 2016, 600 K2’s built and delivered to the South Korean Army.
The cumbersome Merkava is the only third-generation tank to offer both superior crew protection and incredible firepower. As a hybrid of features taken from Israel’s colorful tank fleet, the Merkava evolved into a formidable platform that can incorporate various upgrades.
The expensive Merkava 4, unveiled in 2010, is the pinnacle of an esteemed lineage. Beyond additional armor along its side skirts, front, and turret, the Merkava 4 uses the Trophy APS that foils incoming anti-tank missiles alongside its de rigueur machine guns. Further improvements like a 1,500 hp diesel engine from General Dynamics provides greater mobility compared to earlier Merkavas.
Most impressive about the Merkava 4 are its tanktronics. Aside from the Trophy APS, a computerized magazine allows the loader to select from four types of rounds. The same magazine is designed not to endanger the crew with secondary explosions if penetrated.
A battle management system made by Elbit and front/back visibility via camera for the driver ensures the Merkava 4 is well-adapted to asymmetrical combat. But for the past 20 years the Merkava program has been in danger of cancellation thanks to spiraling costs and political pressure. Only 560 Merkava 4’s are expected to be in service with the IDF until 2020.
Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) designed and developed the Leopard 2A7+ next generation main battle tank (MBT) for the German armed forces. The new battle tank is a further development of the Leopard 2A6 MBT and features enhanced protection and reconnaissance capabilities. It can operate in low intensity conflicts and in high intensity warfare.
The 2A7+ MBT was unveiled during the Eurosatory 2010 exhibition in France, and has been tested and qualified by the German Army. The MBT is presently deployed in Afghanistan by Canada under Nato command
The Leopard 2A7+ main battle tank is equipped with a FLW 200 modular remote controlled light weapon station that provides active self defence from a variety of targets. The weapon system features automatic vehicle detection capability and optoelectronic equipment. It has a high elevation aiming angle from -15° to 70°.
The MBT’s primary weapon is a 120mm L55 / L44 smooth bore gun, which can fire standard Nato ammunition and new programmable 120mm HE-rounds. The tank can also be integrated with a 7.62mm machine gun and 40mm grenade launchers or .50 machine gun. Smoke grenade launchers can be mounted on either side of the weapon station to conceal the tank from enemy observation.